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Gender identity disorder in children

Gender identity


Gender identity simply means a sense that one has of being male or female and most of the time it matches the anatomical sex. Note that most are the keyword in the previous text. 
Gender identity disorders mean a very strong preference of being the other gender ( the one opposite to the individual's birth sex) either to have a body of the other sex or to be considered as the other gender socially. 
What if I told you you can detect gender disorder from a child as early as 3-4 years?
As a parent, guardian, or concerned relative I believe it's crucial to know all these things.

Signs that a child has gender identity disorder.
For girls, before you get alarmed some prefer gender-neutral clothing ( unisex) they are occasionally called tomboys and this is not a gender identity disorder.  A girl with this disorder strictly refuses to dress up on girls' clothes or gender-neutral, they want boys' clothes.
They keep insisting on wanting to be a boy( and are very serious about it) and how they will grow up to become a man. They strongly despise and avoid all feminine acts. In those childhood games we used to enjoy mother-father games, they would always play the role of a man.

Girls with the disorder may refuse to urinate from a sitting position and claim that they have a penis or it will grow someday. And absolute hate the idea of growing breasts and menstruating.
They often have male companions and they love rough games and sports. They show no interest in dolls.

For a boy, it's a bit tricky, parents shouldn’t rush to conclude that the child has this disorder, some boys just don’t like sports like a ball or any athletic activities and instead prefer staying indoors having a tea party with dolls. Some might even dress up in female costumes and all this can still be normal, just a kid being a kid.

For a  boy with gender identity disorder, it might be difficult for them at school being stigmatized and bullied by their peers for their feminine acts or choice of costume.

They have a very strong preference of being a girl and growing up someday into a woman can be one of the signs crucial signs for gender identity disorder, they have female peer friends, preferring female activities, Playing as a woman(mother, sister) in the house (mother-father games).

Boys with the disorder might declare that their penises are disgusting and may prefer not having one, their gestures can be seen as feminine(body motion and postures)

According to research young children with gender identity disorder rarely tend to become homosexuals when they but it can happen especially if they don’t undergo psychological intervention.

Note; this diagnosis excludes children with anatomical intersex, hermaphroditism( having both female testes and ovaries) because in such cases hormones, confusion of their actual sex can lead to a showing of such symptoms.

Why do children get gender identity disorder? 
Children always develop a  gender identity according to the assigned sex. The formations of gender identity are influenced by children's temperament and parents' qualities and reactions. The first people a child grows to trust are his parents and the same goes for the first few years of his life. Therefore the parents play a big role in a child gender identity 

  • Mother's role
Gender identity


In the first few years, a mother-child relationship is important; a mother should teach the child to be proud of their genders, to love themselves as they are valued and loved just how they are. Children need to be constantly assured that they are loved and proud of to avoid separation-individuation can cause gender process. Separation individuation is when a child begins to develop a sense of self and separate from the mother.  

  • When a child gets a message that the parents expected a different gender, or they would more love if they were opposite sex it can cause them to act like the opposite gender, so you can love them. If by any chance you wanted a girl and got a boy, keep it to yourself. Also treat siblings especially of the opposite sex, with much equality so one doesn’t feel unloved and devalued than the other.
  • A parent’s absence, a mother’s for example either by death or extended absence can cause depression, especially for a young boy. Depression to a kid as a result making him identifying with a mother gender to replace her.

Gender roles exist even for kids, there are games a male child is s supposed to play (robots and cars) and some for girls (doll). Boys are expected to be masculine are tough and energized girls are expected to be feminine. Investigators say that this may not be the case for all children, some boys are delicate and feminine and girls are tough and energized. Parents should know this and let just kids be kids

Treatment.
  • Psychiatric intervention for children with gender identity disorder does not the direction of subsequent sexual orientation
  • This treatment of gender identity disorder for a young child is mainly focused on developing social skills and being comfortable in the sex role expected at birth anatomy. This treatment is successful to some extent though transsexual development may be interrupted.
  • No hormonal or psychopharmacological treatments for gender identity disorder in childhood have been identified.

To sum up, gender roles exist even for kids, there are games a male child is s supposed to play (robots and cars) and some for girls (doll). Boys are expected to be masculine are tough and energized girls are expected to be feminine. Investigators say that this may not be the case for all children, some boys are delicate and feminine and girls are tough and energized. Parents should know this and try to direct kids in a loving way rather than using force, harsh way or commanding as this might make a child detach from the parents and become a loner, And I can say this, no parents want this.


References.
Concise textbook for clinical psychology, third edition
Kaplan&Saddocks

Sexual Dysfunction Psychology



It's true without reasonable doubt that sexual dysfunction is sometimes a psychological issue than organic. Sexual dysfunction includes low sexual desire(female hypoactive sexual desires), orgasmic abnormalities( premature ejaculation ) and of course erectile dysfunction. It shouldn’t be quoted wrongly nutrition, physical exercises and conditions like diabetes and heart diseases play a big role on the whole sexual activity (biogenic), but so does psychology(pyogenic, intrapsychic, interpersonal), hence the importance.

One individual may have more than one disorder like one can have male erectile dysfunction as well as premature ejaculation.

The function/ disoders include;

Sexual desire disorders- it has two categories; one means a very low or complete absence of sexual fantasies or yearnings for sexual activities ( no horniness) this is hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Another category is sexual aversion disorder where one avoids genital sexual contact, sometimes by masturbation. Hypoactive sexual desire disorder is more common than the other and even more common among women. However, if the desire is triggered during sex this not a disorder. Factors that can lead to inhibition of sexual desires are;

  • Unconscious fears of sex- vagina-dentate as stated by Sigmund Freud is a condition where men unconsciously believe that a vagina has teeth and they can be castrated if they approach it, therefore avoid it any cost. 
  • Unresolved developmental and oedipal conflicts(complex sexual desires by a child to a parent of the opposite sex) can also inhibit sexual desire
  • Celibacy; abstaining from sex for a very long period can lead to inhibition of sexual desires and impulses
  • Hostility/ hate from a partner- many dying relationships have this hypoactive sexual desires and slowly leads to no sex at all. however, this is not a rule some people have normal sexual desires than others and can have sex as minimal as once in two months yet they are in happy relationships. So unless this lack of desire causes distress, clinicians cannot diagnose hypoactive sexual desires.
  • Other causes include stress, depression and anxiety

Female sexual arousal disorder; it can be both normal and dysfunctional to women. Hormonal pattern may contribute to women who have excitement phase dysfunction. Some women have reported feeling sexual excitement before or after menses while others during ovulation. Shifts of testosterone, estrogen, prolactin and thyroxin levels are factors causing female arousal disorder

Male erectile disorder (erectile dysfunction and impotence)-this means failure to obtain an erection sufficient for vaginal insertion, this is called a lifelong erectile disorder. Situational erectile disorder is when a man can have an adequate erection in some circumstances while failing in others ( can have coitus with a mistress or prostitute but fail to do so with his wife or can do it his home but not unfamiliar environment). Acquired erectile dysfunction is when a man had successful sexual intercourse at appoint in his life but currently unable to do so. Erectile dysfunction is very wide effects from 10- 20 percent of all men. The psychological causes include;

  • Anxiety – erectile dysfunction can be caused when a man is anxious before sexual intercourse. Thoughts like will I be good enough to do anyone any good.
  • Difficulties between partners- failure of a man to communicate due to anger, anxiety, stress at work of life in general with his partner can lead to erectile dysfunction. Communication is the key.
It should be noted that Freud identified one of impotence due failure to reconcile feelings of affection towards a woman he has feelings for. This is known as Madonna- putana complex where men can only function with women they see degraded.
  • Other factors include failure to have sexual impulse are punitive superego, lack of trust, inadequate feelings, feeling undesirable ass a partner.
Female orgasmic disorders. Refers to the continuous inhibition or absence of female orgasm. This is a failure to achieve orgasm by either masturbation or sexual intercourse. Those who can attain orgasm by one of these methods is not considered anorgasmic, many women achieve coitus by a combination of clitoral(manual) and vaginal orgasm. According to feud theory women must give up clitoral orgasm to attain vaginal orgasm for sexual maturity; however, this theory was found to be inaccurate.
A woman with who has never had an orgasm all her life is has a life long female orgasmic disorder while a woman who has experienced at least one orgasm in her life has acquired orgasmic disorder regardless the measure either masturbation or dreaming during sleep.

Male orgasmic disorder, the chances of a man with this disorder achieving an ejaculation are slim to none. A man with life long male orgasmic disorder has never been able to ejaculate all his life, while for acquired is termed when he was ejaculating normally. Some researchers say ejaculation and orgasm should be differentiated especially since there have been some complaints from men who ejaculated and yet didn’t feel pleasure. Patients having this order are fewer compared to those of erectile dysfunction premature ejaculation. 
Reasons may be;
  •  For life long orgasmic disorder it shows  a man is from a  difficult background that  perceives sex sinful and genitals dirty(disgusting)
  • Unconscious or conscious wishes to incest and guilt
  • Attention deficit disorder can worsen the situation
Premature ejaculation-this is when a man achieves orgasm or ejaculation before they wish to ( before or immediately after entering the vagina). A man is considered a premature ejaculator if he can not retain ejaculation long enough in the vagina to satisfy his partner at least half their. episodes with coitus.
A strange fact is premature ejaculation is more common in college-educated men than among men with less education. Some argue because of their concern to satisfy their partners though this cause inst proved. This (premature ejaculation is the chief complaint (35 to 40 percent of men are being treated). Psychogenic causes include
  •  Unconscious fears about vaginas
  •  Men who were initially used to a sexual encounter with prostitutes who demanded it to be quicky, or in an unfriendly environment where they had to have sex quickly because being caught would be embarrassing ( public toilets near the road, parental home.
  • Stressful marriage or relationship influences the disorder, a partner can influence this there its crucial to choose wisely
Young inexperienced men are likely to suffer from this but it goes away with time.
 Individuals especially men are not that open to talk to sexual dysfunction to specialists and at times even their partners. There is no shame in it, talk to your partner or specialist, and enjoy the best in sex.
Some treatments don't need medications rather advice and communication.

References: Concise textbook of clinical psychiatry; Third edition
Kaplan&Sadock's

15 Weeks Pregnant: Body Changes, What to Eat & More


15 weeks is around the second trimester of the whole gestation period.

Body changes in the expectant mother’s body.


  • Weight gain-this is completely normal as the baby is going a lot more than the first trimester. Measure your weight regularly and it should be about 0.5 kg a week on average.
  • Enlargement of the rib cage around 2 to 3 inches to accommodate the widening of the lungs to carry more oxygen to the baby since the capacity increases.
  • Body pains and aches- unless they are unbearable this is completely normal. The uncomfortable pain may be a result of the growing belly that put excess pressure on the muscles and skeleton. All this to accommodate the growing fetus accompanied by the weakening of abdominal walls and increasing strain of muscles. In addition to that, hormonal levels are heightened (especially relaxin hormone) causing stretching of joints and ligaments in the body and this change correlates with back pain.
  • Nipples become darker and bumpier; the hormones cause the skin cell to produce more pigment. there also is the secretion of oily substance so that the nipples can become oily and soft during breastfeeding the secretion of this oil substance is due to the gland called Montgomery tubercles that are only visible during pregnancy. they are found around the nipples on the areola, they re-raised white bumps around the areola(the dark area surrounding the nipple, just like goosebumps).
  • Numbing, tingling Hands and feet- you’ve ever slept on your arm for a long time or sit on your leg and had that tingling feeling? That is the body’s way of telling you a particular area is not getting enough blood or you are compressing a nerve. However, this is just temporary during the second trimester and very common in the last trimester caused by carpal tunnel syndrome.
  • Sexual arousal(increased libido)- estrogen whose level rises during the second-trimester causes an increase of blood flow in the vulva and vagina lubrication hence heightened arousal and pleasure. The genital blood flow makes the clitoris hypersensitive. there is no harm in enjoying sex in this period is advised until the very late stages of your pregnancy.
  • Sensitive teeth and gums-it may be accompanied by bleeding gums especially during brushing teeth, it’s the pregnancy hormones making your gums swell hence likely to bleed. these same hormones make your sinuses to clog. If the symptoms of sinusitis are brutal seek medical help to get relieved.
  • Nose bleed; same thing hormonal changes cause a nose bleeds and if you are not losing a lot of blood do not be terrified as this is completely normal.
The good news is by this time nausea and vomiting symptoms are fading, unlike the first trimester, so the expectant mother is likely to get her appetite back. this is not a privilege for all women some women experience hyperemesis gravidarum which is an intense morning sickness accompanied by extreme vomiting and may require hospitalization, this may lead to complications like premature detachment of the placenta from the uterus(womb), which causes deprivation of the nutrients and oxygen to the baby. So go see the doctor!


Changes of the baby during 15 weeks of pregnancy’


From the size of kiwi fruit in week fourteen to the size of an orange or apple.fascinating right?  It is about 4.5 inches a nd weighs about 144 grams. 
  • The outer part of the baby ears can be recognizable through the inner year continues to develop, hearing though not yet it's happening and you can start singing or read to that baby.
  • The skin is still translucent and vessels and skeleton can be seen, some bones like collar bone have already the development process through the bones from the hands and feet harden and become stronger this week. 
  • Baby hair might appear on the scalp and eyebrows.
  • By 15  weeks the bay can make whole-body movements, their arms legs, stretch and breathing motions, they can go as far as sucking thumbs. When very still, focused and attentive some women can feel their baby moves as early as 15 weeks, they aren’t as strong as the “it kicked” during the 20- 22 weeks. these are first fetal movements and are known as “fluttering” and they are very subtle that some mothers don’t feel them at all.

Food a pregnant mother is advised to eat at 15 weeks

A pregnant mother should consume a balanced diet to avoid pregnancy difficulties like high blood pressure, premature birth, preeclampsia (rise of blood pressure, swelling of face, hands, and feet. Although a balanced diet should be  some nutrients are very essential including


  • Protein- this is essential for the growth of the abyss brain and other tissues to grow, it also helps the growth of the mother's uterus and breasts. for every 1kg of a mother, she should aim to eat 1.52g of protein every day. So if the expectant mother is 65 kg she should eat 98.8g of protein daily. The protein foods include lean meat(low-fat content), nuts, eggs (not undercooked to avoid the risk of salmonella), fish,  and beans.
  • Iron; supplies oxygen to the baby and voids anemia and complications such as premature birth and pots Partum depression (feeling down after giving birth) is a mental health condition. The foods containing iron are meat (lean), green vegetables, groundnuts, cashew nuts, bread, cereal foods. Iron from animal products is absorbed way faster than that from plants. For those who are vegans  foods rich in vitamin c like oranges are highly advisable
  • Fluids- pregnant women need to stay hydrated at all times (8-12glasses a day). Water is essential for the formation of amniotic fluid, carries nutrients and wastes to and fro respectively, produces extra blood, lack of water can cause premature labor, neural tube defects reduced milk production, and low amniotic fluid. Stay hydrated queens!
  • Calcium &folic acid- calcium helps to strengthen a baby's bones and teeth and improves its circulatory system. Folic acid prevents neural tube defects (birth defects of brain, spine, or spinal cord including spina bifida which is the failure of the baby’s spinal cord to develop properly and anencephaly which is a baby born with brain or incomplete skull and normally becomes stillborn or dies few hours after being born), reduces risks of premature labour.No expectant mother wants any of that to happen to her baby. So take these calcium foods which include dairy, eggs, sardines, and salmon (with bones), fruit juices and greens, and foods containing folic acid include oranges, grains, green vegetables, cereals, and legumes.  The folic acid increment is available as one may not get enough from foods.
  • Vitamin D and fatty acids – like calcium vitamin d  in building the baby’s bones and teeth.it is not present in many foods but can be obtained from the morning sun even though the body generates it's own vitamin D. Cereal and milk, egg yolk, beef liver, cheese 9 just to mention a few the supplements can be obtained especially fr those who live in polar regions. Fatty acids support the heart, brain, and eyes, prevent premature labor, increase birth weight, and reduces the risk of the mother falling into depression. Vegetable oils, fruits, nuts animal fats, are some of the sources of fatty acids.
 N.B Alcohol in the first trimester can cause the baby to have abnormal facial features however alcohol deprives growth and cause harm to the central nervous system, refrain from it at all costs!

Do not smoke! It causes baby defects like the sudden death of infant syndrome or cleft lip or cleft palate( this is an opening on the baby's lip or in the roof of her mouth. Of course, it can be treated but if you can avoid it you should.
  • Working out is good as it helps reduces aches, bloating and constipation helps a woman to sleep better. It also helps one to have a normal delivery, without unnecessary complications. Avoid being idle unless strictly advised by the doctor to have a bed rest. Almost there queens, a new life is about to join yours!.





Neurocognitive Disorders and What They May Involve.

Cognitive psychology is a scientific study of mental processes such as attention, language use, memory, perception, problem-solving creativity, and thinking.

Cognitive disorders; this is a category of mental health disorders that primarily affect learning, memory perception, and problem-solving. Examples of these disorders include amnesia, dementia, and delirium. 

Neurocognitive disorder is a term that describes decreased mental function due to medical disease other than psychiatric illness. The following are criteria for neurocognitive disorders and how their examples, you'd be surprised that no matter how normal we think we are we all have a part of neurocognitive disorder. 

The cognitive function domains include

Learning and memory ; 

  • The symptoms for this include repeating themselves during conversations, often within the same conversation, also cannot keep track of shortlisting of items when shopping or plans for the day. Requires frequent reminders to orient the task at hand. Could every kid be having this disorder? No? well, maybe I did. I had to sing the groceries to the shop to avoid forgetting what I was sent. This is mainly a major symptom. 
  • Mild symptoms may include, difficulty in recalling recent events.  Excessively reliance on calendars, reminders, and lists to keep track of events or even characters in a movie or novel can also be a symptom. However, except in severe major neurocognitive disorders, semantic, autobiographical, and implicit memory are preserved in comparison with recent memory.

Complex attention(sustained attention, divided attention,selective attention, processing speed. 

  • This includes environments with multiple stimuli like tv, radio, conversation, kids noise and can be easily distracted by the competitiveness of events in the environment. Can attend on very simplified inputs. Failure to hold new information in minds such as recalling addresses and phone numbers or what has just been said can be inclusive. You can't perform mental calculations? Do you need a calculator even for simple maths? Could it be a disorder?
  •  Thinking, in general, takes longer than usual and things must be simplified first before being processed. there was a girl in our class back in secondary school, she would always be the one to get a joke and simply laugh when everyone else was done. These are the major symptoms
  • Mild symptoms include normal tasks take longer than previously, also works need more double-checking that previously. Thinking and other tasks become easier when there are no competitions. Example one may not be able to hold an understanding of conversation when driving or watching tv.

Social cognition (recognition of emotions, the theory of mind; you might have a different name for such people men, rude arrogant, they exhibit behaviour completely out of social range.

  • They show insensitivity to social standards, no modesty in political, religious sex topics during a conversation. One can focus on the topic despite everyone being completely uninterested or not giving feedback ( can't read the mood or room). They show unacceptable behaviour with no regards for family or friends and can decide with no regard for safety or social setting. One can put on a summer outfit even in very cold weather or dress up black(like in mourning) at a wedding or happy occasion.
  • The mild symptoms include; a subtle change in behaviour and personality, in the ability to recognize social cues or red facial expressions, decreased empathy, excessive extroversion or introversion, decreased inhibition episodic apathy, and restlessness.

Executive function failure; planning, decision making, working memory, responding to feedback, error correction overriding habits. 

  • The major symptoms include abandoning of complex projects, needs to focus on one task at a time, needs to rely on others to plan instrumental activities of daily living and king decisions.
  • The mild symptoms include hs difficulty in multitasking or resuming a task that was interrupted by a visitor or phone call. May complain of fatigue due to the extra effort required to organize plan and make decisions. Sometimes maybe heard complaining about how large social gathering  are less enjoyable because of the effort required in shifting conversations 

Language( expressive and receptive ).

( expressive language[including naming words, finding fluency and grammar, syntax and receptive languge] and receptive language). 

  • The crucial symptoms include difficulty with expressive and receptive language. if it's not you, you must be familiar with people who use phrases “you know what I mean", or “that thing” or “that man" "That girl’ when referring to people. They may prefer to use general pronouns rather than names. When symptoms get serious one can even forget the names of closer friends or family. Stereotypy speeches and echolalia(repeating what the other person has said can also be a symptom.
  • The mild symptoms include has noticeable –finding word difficulty, resistant about using specific names for specific acquaintances, grammatical errors involving subtle omission or incorrect use of articles, prepositions and auxiliary verbs.

 Perceptual motor skills.

( visual perceptions, visuoconstructional, perceptual-motor praxis).

  • Its symptoms include one to have significant difficulties with previously familiar activities(using tools, driving a motor vehicle) navigating familiar environments and gets more confused when it's getting dark or shadows and lowering levels of light perception
  • Mild symptoms include the need to rely more on maps or her people for directions. Usage of notes and followers to get to a new place. Some may find themselves lost or turned around when no focusing on a task is less precise in parking. Needs to extend greater efforts for spatial tasks such as carpentry, assembly sewing and knitting.




Are you safe from all neurocognitive disorders?
It should be noted that although these disorders can happen to youth, they are common in older adults. The most common is Alzheimer's disease which was formerly known as dementia.


References

Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders  DSM-5

14 weeks pregnant: Physiological Changes & More

14 weeks pregnant


There are many fascinating things about science, from the enormous size of the universe to the invisible size of subatomic particles. However, the whole concept of a life growing inside another life is just bizarre. It would be strange if something as big as that lets you become the whole normal for the whole gestation period. Of course, this whole situation differs from person to person, and while some others are exactly normal some experience significant changes. I’m here for my girls who do.

The pregnancy is divided into three trimesters; each trimester for 3 months making it  9 months after the first trimester. The first three months are significant changes in the body, this is where for most women morning sickness is intense (vomiting and nausea). Also, the pregnant mother might experience excessive tiredness because the pregnancy is still burdensome to the body that hasn’t adopted yet. Also the strange craving and mood swings but that is mainly due to hormonal changes.  Some also experience frequent urination and that is mainly because of the growing uterus pressing on the bladder making it harder to conserve the same volume of urine as it id initially. That’s it for the first trimester and it lasts for about 12 weeks. before coming to the second trimester.

What happens in the second trimester?

It's the middle phase of the gestation period. This lasts from 13 weeks to 28 weeks of pregnancy. It's a while of another three full months but today we are going to focus on what happens at that fourteenth week, yes that very week. 

Physiological changes of the mother

Weight gain- this is because the baby is still growing inside you so there is a higher chance of experiencing weight gain.

Nausea/ morning sickness- this, however, is not an issue for many women in the second trimester as their bodies have already adapted to the pregnancy. However nausea is still severed by this time of the pregnancy you may want to see a doctor, so to know about your health and that of the baby. A condition called hyperemesis gravidarum is characterized by excess vomiting. The good news is all these can be treated and controlled when you go to a hospital. If it's normal nausea try not to eat too much at once, eat smaller portions several times a day, drink enough water. Is some smells like perfumes or hot temperatures make you nauseated avoid such places and smell so it would be best for you and baby.

Stomach pains,   an expectant mother might experience sharp pains at the sides of the stomach. However, this is not a red flag, as it's just stretching of the womb as the baby grows in size.

Increased sex drive, this is because there is an increase in blood flow in the pelvic area. Since the bump is not an uncomfortably big bump it is completely safe to have sex until later stages or until the doctor says otherwise. This can help to strengthen the bond with your partner. It is also another way to stay active.

Mood swings, by the time the second trimester has begun many moods, have stabilized and not sporadic as the first trimester. Always find someone total to be it your co-parent or friend when stressed about upcoming motherhood and parenthood assuming you decided to keep the baby after all or if you have decided to give up the baby for adoption or other parents, this is the moment you want to avoid stress at all cost because it’s not just you and the baby is old enough to be affected.

Lessened breast tenderness; the breasts are not as tender as they were in the first trimester.

Increased appetite; since morning sickness is going away the is a large increase in appetite. Also since by this time, there is the rapid growth of the baby a mother needs a lot of foot and if she is expecting twice she should have 700 extra calories. Always have healthy snacks and avoid too much fat. An abnormal balanced diet is ok.

Body glow; the skin gets shinier (for some mothers)hair gets thicker. This is one of the good sides of getting pregnant.

Physiological changes of the baby

The baby is now 85mm about the size of kiwi fruit.

By the time you can hear babies heartbeat using Doppler ultrasound. Some organs are more developed eg. the kidneys can produce urine and the baby liver produces bile. The urine however is excreted through the amniotic fluid. The limbs can now flex. This helps the baby to practice moving hands to mouth. 

The lungs and digestive system are starting to branch out. This means the baby is getting ready for life outside the womb.

Some psychological changes may include.

Anxiety; since after twelve weeks of pregnancy, the chances for miscarriage are lower. a woman is expected to feel relieved, less anxious, and happy. 

However 10% of pregnant women have mental health issue during pregnancy but it is sometimes ignored by both women and health professionals, but if you are worried to fall into depression you might need to seek professional help as it might worsen after birth

Things to do when 14th-month pregnancy.

Treat constipation, constipation is a very common symptom during pregnancy and can easily be taken care of by drinking lots of fluids and water, eating fiber-rich foods, do body exercises regularly to avoid constipation.

Be active; pregnant women should be active for  both her and the baby, regular exercise also reduces some unnecessary complications during birth

Prevent nasal congestion; drink plenty of water and use humidifiers to loosen the mucus also a gentle compress on the face might help

Take care of skin, while some people glow during pregnancy it doesn’t happen to everyone. Some get skin moles and also this is normal and shouldn’t set an alarmist advised to visit a dermatologist.

Last and not least learn everything you can about pregnancy and parenthood. I believe as the fetus grows so should a woman because she is now becoming a mother. You have about nine months to prepare for that bouncing baby, make the time worthwhile.


How to Deal with Lip Pimples: The Dos and Don'ts

lip pimple


There are very few things that can bring utmost satisfaction on this earth, just like farting out a stomach ache, popping out a pimple, or getting rid of a blackhead on a lip can be painful and disgusting yet incredibly relieving. There I said it! However this phenomenon this feeling, popping out a pimple may cause skin damage, so what should we do? See a dermatologist? This might be the best solution if you have the money and can get access to one. But what if you cannot see one? What then?

What causes lip pimples? 

If you are observant you will notice pimples are most common on the face, back and shoulders. This is because there is where there are many sebaceous glands (oil-secreting glands) in those areas. The pimples on the lips have the same causes, prevention, and treatments just like everywhere else in the face. These include;

  • The bacteria that causes pimples is known as propionibacterium acnes (p.acnes)
  • Redundant oil production; some people’s skin are oily than others, excess oil production increases the chances of getting lip pimples.
  • Medications containing bromides, iodides, androgenic steroids, and anti-aging hormones can cause an eruption of lip acne and facially in general.
  • Clogging of hair follicles by oil can also cause pimples
  • Family genetic history; sometimes you can’t run away from acne, it’s in your genes. Family lines tend to produce extra dead skin cells or extra sebum leading to more clogged pores which then cause acne also leading to oily skin that can trap bacteria in pores.
  • Wavering hormones; this is most especially for my girls. This like pregnancy, menopause, and menstrual cycle tend to fluctuate hormones i.e estrogen and progesterone levels drop during menopause, puberty making the skin to break out resulting in acne.
  • Diet; though indirectly and at very little possibility milk and high sugar proteins can raise insulin levels affecting hormones which in turn affect the skin.
  • Stress; strange as it is stress doesn’t cause pimples but can trigger breakouts and make acne worse due to the stress-related hormone CRH, which binds skin receptors in the sebaceous gland driving up oil production.

The following are very simple routines that can avoid skin acne around lips and skin in general.

Skin acne around lips


The dos 

Wash the face twice a day. In the morning and evening and after sweating heavily. Avoid scrubbing this can irritate the skin just wash gently with hands, rinse with warm water, and pat with a soft towel. 

The don’ts

  • Do not sleep with makeup on! This happens a lot if you come back from work of function late at night and you can’t do wait to just lie on your soft comfy bed and puffy pillows. Trust me I understand, but if you keep that up you might need a lot more foundation than you should to cover up that acne, that thought a lot makes get up and clean my face before reuniting with my bed.
  • Do not rub the towel against your skin no matter how tempting it is. This includes scrubbing everything off as a way of cleaning the face. You are just irritating it. Twice is enough, by the way, no need to overdo it.
  • Avoid trying every skin product you lay eyes on. Give time for the product to work, over shifting to a new skin product after a few days can irritate skin and worsen the acne.
  • See a dermatologist!- if acne has persisted stop taking advice from friends and social media. Do not use any medication without a prescription from a skin doctor
  • Do not squeeze the blackhead or pimple on the lip line-; apart from it being painful, there is a risk of getting an infection from the bacteria on the hands. Some people even develop very unattractive acne scars. So patience is the key.
  • Avoid touching your face with dirty hands. We had already established how hard this was from COVID prevention measures but it is crucial. If you have to touch your face make sure your hands are clean.
  • Do not share makeup and its accessories- when you share these other peoples' dead skin cells or acne-causing bacteria can end up in one of your makeup and cause you the skin infection.


Psychological effects of pimples;

We all know how pimples look physically and its high time we checked about what they do to us mentally. If you’ve ever had acne at one point you understand how it is. Personally they;

Lowered my self-esteem to the point where I couldn’t move confidently to a crowded place even though I was already covered in hoodies. I hated my face especially when everyone gave me an " aww what happened to your face" look.

Made me isolate myself from everyone, it happened in my teenage years where I was already isolating myself, the pimples didn’t make it better.

Mixed emotions;  depression anger, an abrupt change in mood, everyone tells me it was because I was a teenager but I know pimples played a big part.

How to deal with lip pimples

  • Take care of your skin: although it sounds obvious it's better to eliminate all the things that could’ve been the cause of acne this can increase the better chance of knowing the cause of the pimples and deal with it.
  • Talk to people, being alone is never good one can easily fall in depression and anxiety disorders. You might be surprised how many people go through the same thing as you.
  • Watch inspirational transformation videos of people with acne, this might give one hope that clear skin is possible. 
  • Don’t stress; though acne can be stressful the irony is that it doesn’t need stress as it can worsen, so try to distress
  • If you can afford to see a dermatologist and claim that clear skin and a psychologist to help you love yourself all through the transformation phase.
  • Lastly love yourself. You are not anything less because of acne and you can be so much more if you let yourself be.

Does this work?

  • Sex- you can never have pimples because of not having sex, however having sex can help reduce the occurrence of pimples due to the increase of blood flow and reduced hormonal levels that you get through sexual intercourse. As a result, you get a better complexion. On the other hand, since sex is a physical activity that involves a lot of sweating and pressing on each other, the oils swat and bacteria can lead to acne.
  • Steaming-although steaming helps to soften the blackheads by opening up pores and they become easier to extract, it does not clear the pimples and certainly does not stop new breakouts from forming.
  • Facemasks – yes, especially if you get a very good one since they drag out extra oil and impurities, as a result, preventing future breakouts while fighting current ones.


Good luck on your getting clear skin journey!For more healthy related tips, visit these sources



Types of Seizures, their Causes, Symptoms and First Aids

Types of Seizures



Seizures refer to changes in behavior, movement, and in the level of consciousness caused by abnormal brain electrical activities.

Before a seizure happens, there may be warning signs. Changes in feelings or sensations or behavior changes can be a warning sign that a seizure may be approaching.  

Changes in sounds, tastes, smells, and feelings are also commonly reported. An aura is considered to be the first real symptom of a seizure, and many people may find the aura hard to describe. However, others may have no signs or symptoms of an impending seizure.

During a seizure, a person may lose the ability to swallow, have difficulty speaking, experience twitching or jerking movements in the body, and even experience convulsions. 

They may lose consciousness, see flashing lights, experience visual hallucinations, and feel out of body sensations. 

The unprovoked and recurrent occurrence of seizures commonly causes epilepsy. A single seizure lasting more than five minutes or two or more seizures within a five-minute period without the person returning to normal between them is known as Status Epilepticus and it is a medical emergency that may lead to permanent brain damage or death and requires immediate medical help 

How many types of seizures are there?

Seizures can be categorized based on where the onset of abnormal brain activity took place. It can also be classified as an unknown onset if it is unknown where it began.

Generalized Seizures

These happen when nerve cells of both the right and left hemisphere of the brain misfire. Epileptic activity occurs throughout the entire brain. They can make you have muscle spasms, blackout, or fall.

There are six types of generalized seizures 

Tonic-clonic seizure 

A tonic-clonic seizure is a type of generalized seizure that usually lasts one to three minutes, but may last up to five minutes. 

Tonic-clonic has two stages symptoms, a loss of consciousness stage followed by muscle convulsions stage. Loss of consciousness stage may last up to ten seconds, Muscles convulsion stage usually lasts less than two minutes. 

This seizure can make a person cry loudly caused by the passage of air between vocal cords(also called vocal folds) and it is not caused by pain. 

It can cause muscle jerks/spasms causing a person to fall to the floor and lose consciousness. sometimes can cause loss of bladder control due to increased pressure hence a person may wet himself/herself. The child may bite the tongue, which may cause bleeding. Tonic-clonic seizures were formerly called Grand Mal seizures.


First Aid
  • Do not restrain the person.
  • Do not insert anything in the mouth.
  • Protect the child from further injury.
  • Roll the child on his/her side after the seizure subsides.
  • If seizures last more than five minutes or occur one after another without recovery between seizures an individual must seek medical help.
During the post-ictal state( a short period after seizure). During this time, the person will need to rest due to fatigue, confusion which may last from five minutes, hours, or even days. Rarely, this state may last up to two weeks. There is no evidence that tonic-clonic seizures cause brain damage.

grand mal seizure

Absence seizures

Also called petit mal seizures, is a non-motor type of seizure that consists of a period of unconsciousness with a blank stare into space for a few seconds.

Other symptoms include chewing movements, stopping speech in the middle of a sentence, rapid breathing, fluttering eyelids, slight movements, or tugging at clothing. It is called "absence" seizures because it's like the person isn't really there (loss of consciousness).

Absence seizures are brief, usually lasting only 2 to 10 seconds. It can be controlled by anti-seizure medications.

First Aid

It usually takes a very brief moment and a person becomes fully conscious without knowing what just happened it's better to tell him or her what happened and inform him or her of anything important s/he missed.

Atonic seizures.


Also called Drop seizures, it occurs when electrical activity in brain surges suddenly causing loss of muscle strength. This sudden loss of muscle strength can cause a person to fall on the ground. If a person is holding something, s/he might drop it, usually lasts less than 15 seconds.

Atonic seizures are more likely to happen to people with severe types of epilepsy known as Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome.

First Aid

As the person falls he/she may hit the head or injure any body part it's better to analyze the injury and address it or seek professional help. 

Drop seizures

Due to this risk of falling,  people who tend to have atonic seizures may need to wear a helmet to protect their heads.

Tonic seizures.


Refers to about 20 seconds sudden stiffness/tension of body, arms, or legs muscles ( extensor muscles). If happens while standing, a person may fall to the ground, but it's rare. The tonic seizure usually happens during sleep.

Clonic Seizures

During a clonic seizure, a person may experience rhymical jerking movements caused by muscles repeatedly stiffening and relaxing. These motor symptoms can affect the whole body or individual parts of the body such as the arms or legs. These movements cannot be stopped by restraining the person. 

A person may temporarily lose consciousness, followed by confusion.

Myoclonic Seizure

Myoclonic means ‘muscle jerk’. "Myo" means of muscle or relating to the muscle, and "clonus" means muscular spasm involving repeated, often rhythmic, contractions. 

Myoclonic seizures are usually very brief arrhythmic jerking motor movements that last less than 1 second.

A person can experience myoclonus in hiccups or in a sudden jerk that may wake a person up as h/she just falling asleep. These things are normal they do happen even to people without epilepsy.
Seizures first aid

Focal seizures

The term focal is used instead of partial to be more accurate when talking about where seizures begin. Focal seizures can start in one area or group of cells in one side of the brain.

Focal seizures are split into two main categories, focal onset aware, and focal onset impaired awareness.

Focal Onset Aware Seizures: a small part of one of the lobes may be affected and the person remains conscious.

Focal Onset Impaired Awareness: It affects a large part of the hemisphere. A person is confused or their awareness is affected in some way.