Neurocognitive Disorders and What They May Involve.

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Cognitive psychology is a scientific study of mental processes such as attention, language use, memory, perception, problem-solving creativity, and thinking.

Cognitive disorders; this is a category of mental health disorders that primarily affect learning, memory perception, and problem-solving. Examples of these disorders include amnesia, dementia, and delirium. 

Neurocognitive disorder is a term that describes decreased mental function due to medical disease other than psychiatric illness. The following are criteria for neurocognitive disorders and how their examples, you'd be surprised that no matter how normal we think we are we all have a part of neurocognitive disorder. 

The cognitive function domains include

Learning and memory ; 

  • The symptoms for this include repeating themselves during conversations, often within the same conversation, also cannot keep track of shortlisting of items when shopping or plans for the day. Requires frequent reminders to orient the task at hand. Could every kid be having this disorder? No? well, maybe I did. I had to sing the groceries to the shop to avoid forgetting what I was sent. This is mainly a major symptom. 
  • Mild symptoms may include, difficulty in recalling recent events.  Excessively reliance on calendars, reminders, and lists to keep track of events or even characters in a movie or novel can also be a symptom. However, except in severe major neurocognitive disorders, semantic, autobiographical, and implicit memory are preserved in comparison with recent memory.

Complex attention(sustained attention, divided attention,selective attention, processing speed. 

  • This includes environments with multiple stimuli like tv, radio, conversation, kids noise and can be easily distracted by the competitiveness of events in the environment. Can attend on very simplified inputs. Failure to hold new information in minds such as recalling addresses and phone numbers or what has just been said can be inclusive. You can't perform mental calculations? Do you need a calculator even for simple maths? Could it be a disorder?
  •  Thinking, in general, takes longer than usual and things must be simplified first before being processed. there was a girl in our class back in secondary school, she would always be the one to get a joke and simply laugh when everyone else was done. These are the major symptoms
  • Mild symptoms include normal tasks take longer than previously, also works need more double-checking that previously. Thinking and other tasks become easier when there are no competitions. Example one may not be able to hold an understanding of conversation when driving or watching tv.

Social cognition (recognition of emotions, the theory of mind; you might have a different name for such people men, rude arrogant, they exhibit behaviour completely out of social range.

  • They show insensitivity to social standards, no modesty in political, religious sex topics during a conversation. One can focus on the topic despite everyone being completely uninterested or not giving feedback ( can't read the mood or room). They show unacceptable behaviour with no regards for family or friends and can decide with no regard for safety or social setting. One can put on a summer outfit even in very cold weather or dress up black(like in mourning) at a wedding or happy occasion.
  • The mild symptoms include; a subtle change in behaviour and personality, in the ability to recognize social cues or red facial expressions, decreased empathy, excessive extroversion or introversion, decreased inhibition episodic apathy, and restlessness.

Executive function failure; planning, decision making, working memory, responding to feedback, error correction overriding habits. 

  • The major symptoms include abandoning of complex projects, needs to focus on one task at a time, needs to rely on others to plan instrumental activities of daily living and king decisions.
  • The mild symptoms include hs difficulty in multitasking or resuming a task that was interrupted by a visitor or phone call. May complain of fatigue due to the extra effort required to organize plan and make decisions. Sometimes maybe heard complaining about how large social gathering  are less enjoyable because of the effort required in shifting conversations 

Language( expressive and receptive ).

( expressive language[including naming words, finding fluency and grammar, syntax and receptive languge] and receptive language). 

  • The crucial symptoms include difficulty with expressive and receptive language. if it's not you, you must be familiar with people who use phrases “you know what I mean", or “that thing” or “that man" "That girl’ when referring to people. They may prefer to use general pronouns rather than names. When symptoms get serious one can even forget the names of closer friends or family. Stereotypy speeches and echolalia(repeating what the other person has said can also be a symptom.
  • The mild symptoms include has noticeable –finding word difficulty, resistant about using specific names for specific acquaintances, grammatical errors involving subtle omission or incorrect use of articles, prepositions and auxiliary verbs.

 Perceptual motor skills.

( visual perceptions, visuoconstructional, perceptual-motor praxis).

  • Its symptoms include one to have significant difficulties with previously familiar activities(using tools, driving a motor vehicle) navigating familiar environments and gets more confused when it's getting dark or shadows and lowering levels of light perception
  • Mild symptoms include the need to rely more on maps or her people for directions. Usage of notes and followers to get to a new place. Some may find themselves lost or turned around when no focusing on a task is less precise in parking. Needs to extend greater efforts for spatial tasks such as carpentry, assembly sewing and knitting.




Are you safe from all neurocognitive disorders?
It should be noted that although these disorders can happen to youth, they are common in older adults. The most common is Alzheimer's disease which was formerly known as dementia.


References

Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders  DSM-5

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